WebSocket 示例(JS + ASP.NET)

推荐使用 SignalR 来平替 WebSocket,参考教程


【服务端(.NET)】

一、创建 WebSocketHandler 类,用于处理客户端发送过来的消息,并分发到其它客户端

public class WebSocketHandler
{
    private static List<WebSocket> connectedClients = [];

    public static async Task Handle(WebSocket webSocket)
    {
        connectedClients.Add(webSocket);

        byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
        WebSocketReceiveResult result = await webSocket.ReceiveAsync(new ArraySegment<byte>(buffer), CancellationToken.None);
        while (!result.CloseStatus.HasValue)
        {
            string message = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(buffer, 0, result.Count);
            Console.WriteLine($"Received message: {message}");

            // 处理接收到的消息,例如广播给其他客户端
            await BroadcastMessage(message, webSocket);

            result = await webSocket.ReceiveAsync(new ArraySegment<byte>(buffer), CancellationToken.None);
        }

        connectedClients.Remove(webSocket);
        await webSocket.CloseAsync(result.CloseStatus.Value, result.CloseStatusDescription, CancellationToken.None);
    }

    private static async Task BroadcastMessage(string message, WebSocket sender)
    {
        foreach (var client in connectedClients)
        {
            if (client != sender && client.State == WebSocketState.Open)
            {
                await client.SendAsync(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(message), WebSocketMessageType.Text, true, CancellationToken.None);
            }
        }
    }
}

二、在 Program.cs 或 Startup.cs 中插入:

// 添加 WebSocket 路由
app.UseWebSockets();
app.Use(async (context, next) =>
{
    if (context.Request.Path == "/chat")
    {
        if (context.WebSockets.IsWebSocketRequest)
        {
            WebSocket webSocket = await context.WebSockets.AcceptWebSocketAsync();
            await WebSocketHandler.Handle(webSocket);
        }
        else
        {
            context.Response.StatusCode = 400;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        await next();
    }
});

这里的路由路径可以更改,此处将会创建一个 WebSocket 连接,并将其传递给 WebSocketHandler.Handle 方法进行处理。

也可以用控制器来接收 WebSocket 消息。


【客户端(JS)】

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1, user-scalable=0" />
    <title>WebSocket 示例(JS + ASP.NET)</title>
    <style>
        #list { width: 100%; max-width: 500px; }
        .tip { color: red; }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
    <h2>WebSocket 示例(JS + ASP.NET)</h2>
    <textarea id="list" readonly rows="20"></textarea>
    <div>
        <input type="text" id="msg" />
        <button onclick="fn_send()">发送</button>
        <button onclick="fn_disconnect()">断开</button>
    </div>
    <p id="tip_required">请输入要发送的内容</p>
    <p id="tip_closed">WebSocket 连接未建立</p>

    <script>
        var wsUrl = "wss://" + window.location.hostname + ":" + window.location.port + "/chat";
        var webSocket;
        var domList = document.getElementById('list');

        // 初始化 WebSocket 并连接
        function fn_ConnectWebSocket() {
            webSocket = new WebSocket(wsUrl);

            // 向服务端发送连接请求
            webSocket.onopen = function (event) {
                var content = domList.value;
                content += "[ WebSocket 连接已建立 ]" + '\r\n';
                domList.innerHTML = content;

                document.getElementById('tip_closed').style.display = 'none';

                webSocket.send(JSON.stringify({
                    msg: 'Hello'
                }));
            };

            // 接收服务端发送的消息
            webSocket.onmessage = function (event) {
                if (event.data) {
                    var content = domList.value;
                    content += event.data + '\r\n';
                    domList.innerHTML = content;
                    domList.scrollTop = domList.scrollHeight;
                }
            };

            // 各种情况导致的连接关闭或失败
            webSocket.onclose = function (event) {
                var content = domList.value;
                content += "[ WebSocket 连接已关闭,3 秒后自动重连 ]" + '\r\n';
                domList.innerHTML = content;

                document.getElementById('tip_closed').style.display = 'block';

                setTimeout(function () {
                    var content = domList.value;
                    content += "[ 正在重连... ]" + '\r\n';
                    domList.innerHTML = content;
                    fn_ConnectWebSocket();
                }, 3000); // 3 秒后重连
            };
        }

        // 检查连接状态
        function fn_IsWebSocketConnected() {
            if (webSocket.readyState === WebSocket.OPEN) {
                document.getElementById('tip_closed').style.display = 'none';
                return true;
            } else {
                document.getElementById('tip_closed').style.display = 'block';
                return false;
            }
        }

        // 发送内容
        function fn_send() {
            if (fn_IsWebSocketConnected()) {
                var message = document.getElementById('msg').value;
                document.getElementById('tip_required').style.display = message ? 'none' : 'block';
                if (message) {
                    webSocket.send(JSON.stringify({
                        msg: message
                    }));
                }
            }
        }

        // 断开连接
        function fn_disconnect() {
            if (fn_IsWebSocketConnected()) {
                // 部分浏览器调用 close() 方法关闭 WebSocket 时不支持传参
                // webSocket.close(001, "Reason");
                webSocket.close();
            }
        }

        // 执行连接
        fn_ConnectWebSocket();
    </script>
</body>
</html>


【在线示例】

https://xoyozo.net/Demo/JsNetWebSocket


【其它】

  • 服务端以 IIS 作为 Web 服务器,那么需要安装 WebSocket 协议

  • 一个连接对应一个客户端(即 JS 中的 WebSocket 对象),注意与会话 Session 的区别

  • 在实际项目中使用应考虑兼容性问题

  • 程序设计应避免 XSS、CSRF 等安全隐患

  • 参考文档:https://learn.microsoft.com/zh-cn/aspnet/core/fundamentals/websockets

xoyozo 2 个月前
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